Research


CEMPROC considers research to be an important part of its mission, with which it can contribute to a greater understanding of conflict, its sources, its implications, and effective mechanisms for its resolution. In all of its research efforts, CEMPROC seeks to take advantage of its specialization in conflict resolution tools and training in the Latin American and Spanish- speaking context in order to improve general understanding in this field, and exploring less-studied areas, particularly in developing countries of Latin America.


Conflict Dynamics in Developing Areas
CEMPROC has designed a survey instrument which it is distributing in marginalized neighborhoods in Ecuador with the purpose of measuring a broad range of attitudes toward conflict and different resolution mechanisms, and to gather data on the primary sources of conflict in these areas as well as the availability of mediation and other conflict resolution support services. The data gathered through this instrument will serve the dual purpose of contributing to a greater understanding of the application of conflict resolution theory in developing countries and of generating baseline data that will help ensure that CEMPROC's programs are designed in such a way to be as effective as possible in meeting the needs of its target constituency. Click here to see some of the preliminary results from this research project.



Human Security and Peacebuilding: Colombian Forced Migrants in Ecuador

Audio recording of a research presentation given by Dr. Jeff Pugh, Executive Director of CEMPROC, on October 27, 2011 at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University in Providence, RI.
Click here to download the mp3 audio file.




Ecuadorian College Student Attitudes Toward Colombian Refugees

This study, which was carried out during the Summer 2007 CEMPROC/UGA Study Abroad Program by Tessa Buffington, Andrew Gonzalez, Andres Ochoa, and Chris Poth, explores beliefs and attitudes among Ecuadorian college students at 6 Quito universities toward Colombians and Colombian refugees. The results are presented in summary form in a presentation that cross tabulates survery responses with demographic characteristics, including the general expected socioeconomic level of each of the 6 universities. The sample size for the survey is n=120. The surveys were distributed as randomly as possible at each universities, while the specific universities were selected to include a wide geographical and socioeconomic range. Click here to see a PowerPoint presentation of the survey results and analysis



Refugee Conflict Dynamics and International Relations

CEMPROC uses a service research model to measure attitudes among Colombian refugees and immigrants and the Ecuadorian host community with respect to their perceptions of conflict, sources of tension between Colombian migrants and Ecuadorians, and effective conflict management mechanisms. Using a combination of focus group style open forum, informal interviews, and survey questionnaires, this project, which has received funding from the Johns Hopkins University Program on Latin American Studies and others, seeks to explore how community-level conflict dynamics are filtered and mediated through public messages, stereotypes, the media, and politicians at all levels to affect national-level policy toward Colombia. Click here to see a PowerPoint presentation of some preliminary results



Publications

CEMPROC Working Paper Series in Peace, Conflict and Development
This series publishes works in progress that deal with issues of international peace and conflict, incorporating themes of security, development, human rights, and institutions, especially in Latin America.







Whose Brother’s Keeper? International Trusteeship and the Creation of Peace, by Jeff Pugh (2005)
"International trusteeship of territories by multilateral institutions or foreign states received renewed attention in the wake of its application in Kosovo and East Timor during the 1990s. Subsequently, interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq have contributed to the intensity of critical discussion over the ability of post-Westphalian sovereignty approaches to delineate the interactions and limitations of competing norms as they apply to questions of human rights, justice, nationalism, and security. This paper seeks to conceptualize clearly the idea of international trusteeship and to establish normative and practical criteria for the application of the trusteeship model to weak, fragile, or post-conflict societies. In particular, I propose that consent of the local population, international legitimacy, and local institutions’ capacity for effective governance form the key dimensions of the legitimacy and feasibility of a potential international trusteeship. Building on disparate perspectives found in the literatures on quasi-states, state building, liberal institutionalism, and critiques of international intervention, the paper tests the utility of these criteria through limited case studies of actual and potential international trusteeships, including East Timor, Kosovo, and the Palestinian territories. Finally, I propose a typology of ‘trustee-like’ international interventions in order to clarify the conceptual muddle that persists in the trusteeship literature."


El Salvador's Negotiated Solution to Civil War, by Jeff Pugh (2006)
After years of violent conflict, 75,000 casualties, and three years of negotiations, the government of El Salvador and the FMLN rebel alliance signed a historic comprehensive peace accord which brought an end to the war and instituted wide-reaching reforms. This paper employs a broad structural analysis to understand the conditions which led to the 1992 Chapultepec Peace Accords. Within this explanation of broad power dynamics, however, a multi-stage framework separates the negotiation process into different phases characterized by distinct strategies, goals, and motivations. The combination of structural and integrative conceptual tools offers a nuanced explanation of the negotiations and the resulting peace agreement. The negotiations were shaped profoundly by alterations in the power relationship between the parties, resulting from domestic events, changing norms, and the evolution of the international political context. The unsuccessful November 1989 FMLN offensive on San Salvador and the subsequent murder of six Jesuit priests by the Salvadoran military (with the resulting international backlash) were the immediate triggers that forced both parties to reassess their positions and come to the negotiating table, a decision that was strongly reinforced by external structural realignments including the end of the Cold War, increased pressure for human rights reform and decreased military assistance from the United States government, and the availability of United Nations mediation to push the process along. In response to calls for the application of ‘El Salvador’s lessons’ to contemporary conflicts, the paper considers how these historical parallels can be usefully (but carefully) applied today.

Democratic Peace Theory: A Review and Evaluation (2005), by Jeff Pugh

La frontera Colombo–Ecuatoriana: determinante en las relaciones entre los dos países, by Andres Quintero L. (2007)

Colombia, Ecuador and Two Plans: An Overview of the Colombian Conflict and Colombian-Ecuadorian Relations, by Karoline Popp (2007)

El Conflicto con Colombia: Influencia en el Ambiente y la Salud, by Andres Quintero L. (2008)

CEMPROC Executive Director has written an analytical paper examining the violent conflict in Colombia, and particularly focusing on the change in U.S. foreign policy toward this country during the administration of President George W. Bush. As perhaps the most violent conflict in the Western Hemisphere, the Colombian armed struggle has no easy answers; this analytical work, however, sheds light both on the factors influencing the current situation and their historical roots, and offers suggestions for an eventual peace proposal. To read the full paper, click below:
Changing Gears in Colombia: U.S. Policy under President George W. Bush (2003)





Call for submissions: In order to submit an article for consideration to be published in the CEMPROC Working Paper Series, send it by e-mail, along with a 200-word abstract and your affiliation information, to info@cemproc.org with 'CEMPROC WPS submission' in the subject line.